So are Yeast Driven Beers the Next Hops Craze? Ok so Neil so what does this title even mean? The subject was suggested by Chris, to write an article about.
My interpretation; hops experimentation has reached a certain level of maturity in brewing. We have many styles of IPA (India pale ale) such as
- Double IPA
- Triple IPA
- Belgium IPA
- Black IPA
- New England IPA
- Milkshake IPA
- White IPA
There’ll be more written on the subject and great studies on hops and brewing in the future. However, I feel a lot of the basics have been covered, understood and universally accepted by the brewing community.
Then we come to yeast, which I believe is where the next evolution in brewing will come from. I’ve started writing more on the subject of yeast. Plus, about my appreciation of Milk the Funk (MTF) wiki and the accompanying MTF facebook group.
This article aims to be a jumping off point for further research, introducing the basics of how yeast can be used to make new and unique beers.
The Discovery of Kveik
Yeast evolution in brewing has already started. I think one of the main drivers was the discovery of Kveik yeast by the outside brewing world, of this obscure Norwegian yeast. This article is a great look at how the brewing community came to know about kveik .
It’s possible to ferment Kveik yeasts at crazy temperatures. With some strain working at 38 -42°C (100 – 107°F). It can finish fermenting in 2 days and still be a clean beer. It’s fair to say Kveik, took the brewing world by storm.
The rapid rise in use and acceptance of Kveik yeast in commercial brewing. I believe opened many brewers’ eyes to the myriad of possibilities, when it comes to yeast and brewing.
The Love for Brett – Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze
Yes, I accept Belgium has been doing wild fermentations for centuries with the brewing of Lambic beers. However, the use of coolships and the capturing of wild yeast in craft brewing is on the rise around the world.
Brewers are sharing their experiments, with techniques being refined, adopted and used to make commercial beers. Furthermore, since the early 2000’s, craft breweries have been looking to yeasts such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces anomalus for creating beers with unique profiles.
But it is safe to say, the adoption of these yeasts is on the rise as more brewers discover the versatility they offer. Also, the informed craft drinking public understand and enjoy these beers plus, there is a market for them.
Classification Taken from Milk the Funk (MTF) – Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze
When it comes to putting yeasts into categories for this article it was difficult so, I looked to MTF for guidance. Here is what we have:
This is fermentation involving a combination of Saccharomyces (brewer’s yeast), Brettanomyces (wild yeast), Lactobacillus (lactic acid bacteria abbreviated to LAB) and Pediococcus (lactic acid bacteria) or other microbes not necessarily associated with brewing.
These beers don’t necessarily have to be sour but, might be tart due to some acetic acid production. The primary fermentation is completed by a Saccharomyces and/or Brettanomyces yeast in most cases.
Spontaneous Fermentation / Coolships
We are back to lambic beers here. A generally accepted definition of spontaneous fermentation is the inoculation of wort for fermentation by local ambient microbes. Brewers use a vessel called a coolship, please see the picture below.
The coolship should be shallow to allow a large surface-to-volume ratio. This allows for more affective cooling but also makes it easier for microbes to inoculate said wort.
The wort will be left to cool overnight and exposed to the air. Where native yeast and bacteria are introduced to the wort. One term commonly used to describe these beers is “wild ale”.
In Belgium (and now adopted elsewhere) these beers are produced between autumn and spring, when ambient night temperatures are around -3.9 to 8°C (25-46°F).
The reason being these temperatures are ideal for cooling the wort. Plus, some people suggest these times are best for the ambient microbial balance, as the summertime has more acetic acid bacteria.
A process of mixed fermentation where lactic acid bacteria, usually Lactobacillus is pitched before the primary fermentation yeast to produce lactic acid to sour the wort. Typical non-sour beer has a final pH between 3.8 and 4.6.
Whilst these sour beers will have a pH range between 3.0 and 3.7. The most popular method to sour wort is kettle souring. Typically, the wort is left in the brew kettle overnight, up to 3 days.
A pure strain of lactobacillus is introduced, where it consumes sugars in the wort transforming them into lactic acid. This is how sour beers get its tart flavor many of us love.
Typically, he wort is boiled after the target pH has been reached to pasteurize the wort, stop the souring process, it’s then cooled and sent to FV where the primary yeast is added for fermentation.
There are other methods to sour wort, such as commercial yeasts developed to ferment the glucose in the wort into lactic acid in FV (fermentation vessel). One such yeast is Fermo Acid Brew which I’ve written about here.
Once the souring yeast has finished, the primary yeast for fermentation is added to finish off the fermentation to the desired final gravity.
Brettanomyces – Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze
I learnt something new today, Brettanomyces is Greek for “British Fungus”! Brewers use the term Brett or Bretta. It was an important yeast for producing the desirable characteristics in English ales in the 17th century and earlier.
However, from the 1800’s onwards, Brett was seen as a spoilage yeast. Except when used in Belgian Lambic and Flanders beers. But in the last 20 years Brett has been making a comeback in craft brewing circles.
Brettanomyces, produces high levels of fruity esters which brewers seek in some styles of beer like saison, lambic and sour beers. Please see the aroma wheel below.
Historically Brett was considered a “wild yeast”, due to its ability to spoil beer and for the funky aromas and flavors it produces. Some of the main descriptors include “floral”, “earthy” and “horse blanket”.
Thankfully brewers have been able to wrangle this fickle organism through culturing to produce known and desired results in finished beer. Thus allowing Brett to be used and understood by brewers with a little research using commercial strains readily available.
We brewers call this “Lacto” or abbreviate it to LAB. Lacto produces acidity and sour flavors though the formation of lactic acid.
Common beer styles produced this way are lambics, Berlinerweisse, sour brown ales gueze and gose. We covered how LAB is used in brewing in wort souring and mixed fermentation above.
The Love for Sours and Wild Yeast
Sour beers are no longer a “niche beer”, they’ve hit the mainstream. There are brewers like Wild Wave in South Korea who exclusively make sour and wild ales.
In Australia, they are several breweries known for their wild and sour ales. These include:
Wildflower – Specializes in wild yeast ales barrel age blending. Chris recently interviewed one of the owners Topher Boehm for series 2 of the podcast.
Future Mountain Brewing – Based out of Reservoir, Victoria who are well-known for their farmhouse inspired, mixed fermentation and barrel aged beers
Dollar Bill brewing – Based out Ballarat, Central, Victoria and well-known in the wild ale space.
You have all forms of sour beer, from sour IPA’s, dark sour beers, to many styles of gose to sour fruited beers. Brazil even has its own style called Catarina Sour.
Brewers are getting really creative with these brews and there’s a wonderful sharing of knowledge. People are sharing their wild yeast captures techniques and cultures. Please see this great post by Bootleg Biology for the basics of yeast capturing.
The unique flavors these yeasts are producing is akin to the discovery and research done into many strains of Kveik. There’s still so much to discover. But the possibilities are endless and why I believe yeast driven beer are the next hop craze.
This is a subject I’ve covered in an article at Asian Beer Network which you can read here. So, I’ll just go over the basics here.
Wine Yeast and Beer Wort – Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze
Many wine yeasts don’t ferment the main sugars in beer wort, maltose and maltotriose. They ferment other simpler sugars in the wort so, you’ll need to use a beer yeast to ferment the beer to your desired final gravity.
The term for using two yeasts in this manner is called “co-pitching” or “mixed fermentation”, which we looked at earlier in this article. One other way to ferment the wort with wine yeast is to use an enzyme to breakdown the complex sugars into simple ones, which the wine yeast can ferment.
A lot of wine yeasts have what we call a “kill factor”. Meaning, it’ll kill other yeasts if they’re added at the same time or later. In brewing, if a wine yeast has the kill factor you need to pitch the beer yeast first and then wine yeast later.
Split the batch, with say 70% of the wort fermented by the beer yeast, and 30% fermented by the wine yeast. Again, use an enzyme to break down the complex sugars so the wine yeast can work. Once both worts have been fermented and ready, you can blend the batches together.
POF+ and POF-
The majority of wine yeasts are POF+ (phenol off flavors), meaning when they ferment beer, they create undesirable off-flavors. However, there are some POF- wine yeasts which are more suitable for brewing beer. Please check the main wine yeast article for more on this subject.
Wine Yeast Conclusions
The use of wine yeasts in beer is on the rise, with some commercial breweries producing beers made with wine yeast for market. It’s still a newish development, with little research available on the subject.
The main driver is wine yeasts offers the potential for new natural flavors and aromas in beer production. Some yeasts offer wonderful fruity aroma such as stone fruit which you get from K1B-116 white wine yeast or you can use L22-26 a red wine yeast, which gives off a general berry flavor.
Being Unique – Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze
As more breweries pop up around the globe and the competition gets fiercer, breweries look to offer beers which are unique and standout. There are a lot of heavy hopped beers on the market, it’s harder to stand out or be creative with hop forward beers.
The use of different yeast strains is not as developed in the brewing world as with hops. It’s easier to be unique or create something which can make you stand out. In the drive to get people to drink your beer, yeast exploration could be the way forward as it:
- Offers the chance to create unique flavours
- Works across multiple beer styles so creating something new is easy
- Make you stand out from the hop hype / adjunct breweries
There’s another advantage to exploring yeast, cost. Hops are expensive with certain varieties in demand being extremely costly. Plus, the more hops you use the less sellable beer you have.
Now, if you go down the yeast route it can be much cheaper. You can develop your own inhouse strains and re-use them time and time again. You can also end up with more “sellable” beer from every batch if you’re not heavily hopping the beer.
If a brewer can produce beer cheaper, plus, still be unique as well as sold for a premium it’s a win-win. These yeast driven beers are still seen as special by the consumers, as they are unique. Yes, they take a few extra steps to produce but, it makes selling them for a premium price point is acceptable.
If you can reuse the yeasts, then the price point of the beers will be attractive, especially when compared to heavy hopped beers.
Australian Breweries Playing in the Yeast Driven Beers Space
There has been a number of breweries in Australia that have also been pushing the envelope within the yeast driven beers space. Chris was able to catch up with Topher Boehm from Wildflower just recently for the upcoming series 2 of the podcast, where he discussed their unique business model and beer offerings specialising in brewing with wild yeast and barrel age blending.
Other breweries include Slow Lane who specialise in yeast driven European ales, and Harvest Berry Mountain, who under Master Brewer Neal Cameron, has adopted old traditional brewing methods by doing open fermentations of their beers. These two breweries are also expected to appear on the podcast, as well as some behind the scenes video footage of their operations (stay tuned for this). And let’s not forget some of the bigger guys such as Van Dieman Brewing, La Sirene, Future Mountain & Dollar Bill Brewing as well.
Yeast Driven Beers Are the Next Hop Craze – Conclusions
So, there you have it. My thoughts on yeast driven beers. As I say this article is to be a jumping off point for your own further research. I’ve my own experiments ongoing right now.
For example, two weeks ago, I took some wort from regular stout brew and put 100 litres in a pilot FV and pitched Fermo Acid Brew into it.
I let the beer sour, it went to pH 3.9, which not particularly low but I didn’t pre-acidify the wort and also the mash temperature was quite high.
Then pitched some BE-134 Fermentis yeast in the wort and let it ferment out, it’s a Saison yeast. I added some coconut and dried hibiscus flower just before terminal gravity. It’s crashing now, but so far really happy with the results.
I’ve ordered some wine yeasts and will be playing with wort streams in the future. To see what flavor profiles, I get. I’m brewing in Shanghai and I don’t know of another local brewery experimenting with wine yeast. I could offer something unique to the city.
I’m excited to trial these beers and see what feedback I get. I’ll share my experiences and results in future articles. Will yeast driven beer be the next hop craze? I don’t know but there’s one way to find out and that’s…just brew it.
One final Note
When working with new yeasts and microbes be careful of cross contamination. When you bring something new into a brewery, you need have proper measures in place.
For example, in some breweries their sour program is completely separate from the normal production facility, with their own beer hose and packaging line.
Further Content on the Topic
Check out Series 1 Episode with Avi Shayevitz from Lallemand brewing who gives in-depth insights about the importance of yeast in the brewing process and exciting prospects yeast will play in the future of craft beer.